The relative frequency of characters in natural language texts is very important for cryptography. However, the statistics vary for different languages. Here are the top 9 characters sorted by their relative frequencies for several common languages:
English: ETAOINSHR German: ENIRSATUD French: EAISTNRUL Spanish: EAOSNRILD Italian: EAIONLRTS Finnish: AITNESLOKJust as important as the relative frequencies of single characters are those of pairs of characters, so called digrams. Given several text samples, calculate the digrams with the top relative frequencies.
For each test case generate 5 lines containing the top 5 digrams together with their absolute and relative frequencies. Output the latter rounded to a precision of 6 decimal places. If two digrams should have the same frequency, sort them in (ASCII) lexicographical order. Output a blank line after each test case.
2 Take a look at this!! !!siht ta kool a ekaT 5 P=NP Authors: A. Cookie, N. D. Fortune, L. Shalom Abstract: We give a PTAS algorithm for MaxSAT and apply the PCP-Theorem  Let F be a set of clauses. The following PTAS algorithm gives an optimal assignment for F: 0
a 3 0.073171 !! 3 0.073171 a 3 0.073171 t 2 0.048780 oo 2 0.048780 a 8 0.037209 or 7 0.032558 . 5 0.023256 e 5 0.023256 al 4 0.018605